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Assessment of cotinine levels at the peri‐implant sulcular fluid (PISF) may function as a valuable biomarker of peri‐implant ailments in nicotine‐product users.
One hundred two male individuals (35 cigarette smokers, 33 waterpipe smokers, 34 electronic‐cigarette users, along with 35 nonsmokers) were included. Scores of peri‐implant PI (P < .05) and PD (P < .05) were significantly higher among cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers, along with electronic‐cigarette users in comparison to nonsmokers. The volume of accumulated PISF was considerably greater among cigarette (P < .05) and waterpipe smokers (P < .05) and electronic‐cigarette users (P < .05) compared to nonsmokers.
Habitual usage of nicotinic products enhances the term of cotinine in the PISF. Cotinine levels from the PISF of smoke along with waterpipe smokers and electronic‐cigarette users are similar.
Materials and methods
The goal of the present study is to compare cotinine levels in the PISF among cigarette smokers, waterpipe users, electronic‐cigarette consumers, and nonsmokers.
Marijuana smokers, even waterpipe smokers, electronic‐cigarette consumers, and nonsmokers have been contained. A questionnaire was used to collect details regarding age, sex, length of smoking and vaping, history of smoking, duration of smoking/vaping, and everyday frequency of smoking/vaping. Implant‐related data including implant dimensions and length of implants in function were also recorded. PISF has been collected and amounts of cotinine in the PISF were measured. Sample‐size estimation was conducted, and statistical comparisons were performed with one‐way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc modification evaluations. P values under .05 were classified as mathematically significant.